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The Oasis Foundation: Socio demographical statistics
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With an estimated population of 1,087,891 inhabitants by the year 2000, Quintana Roo, like the rest of the Mexican states, is a case of a growing population characterized by large concentrations in small cities and high dispersion in rural areas. With an average annual population growth rate of 6% between 1995 and 2000, the state is an example of expansion that exceeds the national rate of approximately 2%. This growth has been disproportionate and particularly high in the Northern Zone and along the Caribbean Coast, whilst in the south and the border with Campeche and Yucatan growth has been less. The high population growth in recent years in the state has in large part been due to a flow of migration, attracted by the abundance of tourism in the areas of Cancun, Playa del Carmen, and to a lesser extent Chetumal.

The population of Quintana Roo is characterized by youth, with low birth and death rates, and a higher life expectancy than the national average. The growth in population is chiefly due to immigration, of which the main age group is 20 to 24 years old (see Graph 2.1

Population Volume and Composition

In the last three decades, the population of the state exceeded 88,150 inhabitants in 1970, 858,848 in 1996 and an estimated 1,087,891 in 2000 with an average annual growth rate of 6.13% between 1995 and 1999. This growth rate has been among the highest in Mexico, at more than  6% from 1950 onwards (for an idea of the implications of this one need only note that at an annual rate of 4% a population would double every 25 years) , rising to over 9% between 1970 and 1980, and continuing in the last decade at 6%. Distributed between eight municipalities, the population has grown disproportionately, as shown in Table 2.1; the municipality ‘Solidaridad’ grew at an estimated 10.9% in 2000, totaling 49,640 inhabitants. That same year, Benito Juarez reached 581,636 inhabitants with a growth rate of 8.7%, where as other municipalities located in the same continent such as Lázaro Cárdenas and Othón P. Blanco showed much lower rates of 3%.


Table 0.1 Population forecasts and growth rates 1996-2000.

Municipality
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
Estimated Growth Rate for 1999(%)
             
Cozumel
50,464
51,170
51,886
52,612
53,349
1.4
Felipe C. Puerto
58,448
60,260
62,128
64,053
66,039
3.1
Isla Mujeres
14,644
15,186
15,748
16,330
16,934
3.7
Othón P. Blanco
235,591
242,423
249,453
256,687
264,130
2.9
Benito Juárez
416,614
452,859
492,258
535,084
581,636
8.7
José Ma. Morelos
31,277
32,215
33,181
34,176
35,201
3
Lázaro Cárdenas
18,992
19,467
19,953
20,451
20,962
2.5
Solidaridad
32,818
36,395
40,362
44,761
49,640
10.9
TOTAL
858,848
909,975
964,969
1,024,154
1,087,891
6.13

Source: COESPO Quintana Roo. Demographic Forecasts 1999.

Although it may seem that the total volume of the state is not a significant figure given the amount of territory in question, the population density in 1999 was 20.14 inhabitants per km². Indeed, the figures varied significantly from one municipality to the other. Graph 2.2 shows that six municipalities had a density of less than 15 inhabitants per km², whilst Benito Juárez recorded 321 inhabitants per km² and Felipe Carrillo Puerto only 5.

Graph 0.2 Population Density 2000


Source: COESPO Quintana Roo. Demographic Forecasts 1999.

In addition to the total population volume, another interesting fact is that due to the speed with which such a high volume has been reached, characteristics have been brought to the population that have created a problem with no easy solution.  One such important characteristic is the predominance of youth. The pyramid of Graph 2.1 shows that 69.78% of inhabitants were younger than 30 years old in 2000, where the average age of the state was 20. The disproportion among municipalities can also be seen in this graph, since Benito Juárez, Cozumel and Isla Mujeres have an average age of 22, whilst José María Morelos’ average age is barely 16. Though the immediate demographic effect is a demand for infrastructure and services, increased marriage and birth rates will also be reflected in the next twenty years.

Population Distribution

The distribution of Quintana Roo’s population has followed the same pattern as the rest of the country: concentration in a few urban areas, such as Cancún, Playa del Carmen and Chetumal, with high dispersion in the rest of the state. This state demonstrates a special case in that two of these urban centers are located in the northern region, whilst one center is on its own in the very south. This fact has meant that the development of the population appears dichotomized. The population distribution has its basis in the economic activities along the coast of the Mexican Caribbean, which in turn has led to a concentration of inhabitants along the Mayan Coast. For example, among the 1,713 localities of the state, 98% (1,693) of these had less than 2,500 inhabitants, and among these 1,693 localities, 1,400 of them are spread throughout the state, some with less than 50 inhabitants. This means that 80.3% of the total population was concentrated in the remaining 20 localities, 52.2% located in the municipality of Benito Juarez, and 25.1% in Othón P. Blanco.

Parallel to the population increase was an increase in the degree of urbanization. In 1970, 63.5% of the population occupied localities of less than 2,500 inhabitants, a figure which, as mentioned, dropped to a mere 19.7% in 1995. ‘Rural’ areas are defined as such because of their low number of inhabitants and low population density. These areas have maintained a steady distance from other settlements, or only have limited accessibility to them. Following n this way, by 1999 83% of the population was ‘urban’ and 17% was considered rural.

Population Dynamics

Observing the principal components of population, birth rate, death rate and migration in Quintana Roo, one may note that the trends of birth and death rates were similar to the national level, since it has decreased in the last decade. To comprehend this, it is necessary to take into account that the growth of a population is governed by natural and social growth; the former is caused by more births and fewer deaths, and the latter by rising immigration amidst falling emigration. 

The Birth Rate

During the period 1992-96, the global fertility rate (average number of children that a woman or group of women would have had in their lifetime if they had maintained the same patterns of fertility of any given year) was 3.2 for Quintana Roo, according to the National Survey of Dynamic Demography. According to the State Council of the Population of Quintana Roo, this figure dropped to 2.38 children in 2000, very close to the national average of 2.48 from 1995 (see Graph 2.2). This reduction in fertility has also been reflected in the general birthrate which, according to the same source, ended up at 22.04 per thousand in 2000. Nevertheless, some municipalities such as Lázaro Cárdenas displayed rates in 1997 as high as 28.5 per thousand; whilst the rate in Benito Juárez was only 21.4 per thousand.

An important factor is the average age at which people marry. In 2000 it was 19.8 years old, and given that this age is so young, the chances of reproduction are increased. Out of the total population of the state, 21% are women between 15 and 44 years old (the reproductive age group); of the total number of bridegrooms in 2000 (5,713), 36% were between 20 and 24 years old, and 35% of them had only reached the primary level of their education.

Given the concentration of the population, it is in the municipality of Benito Juárez where the highest amount of births take place (45% of the total amount in 2000), followed by Othón P. Blanco with 26.4%, whilst the rest of the municipalities had percentages of less that 8%. With regards to birth, a factor to consider is whether the mother participates in the labor force. In 2000, 79.8% of births were given by ‘working’ mothers, that is to say the 17.7% of women who are officially part of the labor force. I am accustomed.

Table 0.1 Demographic Statistics 2000.

Category

National

State

Total Population

97,744,149

1,024,154

Men

48,393,390

526,355

Women

49,350,759

497,799

Population Density

50 inhab./Km2

20.14 inhab/Km2

Demographic Growth Rate

1.51%

6.13%

Natural Growth

1.82%

2%

Social Growth

-0.31%

4.13%

General Birth Rate

22.58 per thousand

11.27 per thousand

Life Expectancy

74.14 years

74.64 years

Men

70.98 years

71.69 years

Women

77.30 years

78.13 years

General Mortality Rate

4.40 per thounsand

2.11 per thounsand

Infant Mortality Rate

24.67 per thounsand

13.35 per thounsand

Global Fertility Rate

2.48 childs per women

2.38 childs per women

Average age of the First Union

22.0 years

19.8 years

Prevalence of contraceptive measures in the MEFU

69.40%

68.30%

Total Properties

22,127,373

239,288

Average number of occupants per dwelling

4.42

4.28

Urban Population

71%

83%

Rural Population

29%

17%

Source: Demographic Situation of the Mexican States. Forecasts CONAPO/COESPO 2000 cited in COEPO Quintana Roo. Demographic Forecasts  2000

Mortality

With reference to mortality, the various advances in the medical world have led to its reduction in the state of Quintana Roo. The mortality rate was a mere 2.11 for every thousand in 2000, one of the lowest levels in the country. A figure that even further exemplifies the level of wellbeing is the low rate of child mortality. Table 2.3 demonstrates that the highest child mortality rate (number of child deaths in a given year per every thousand children of that age) is in the municipality of Benito Juárez, significantly higher than the other municipalities of the state (15.1 versus 9.6 in the rest of the state.
The efforts carried out to alleviate this issue have proved successful in some municipalities; for example the child mortality rate in Isla Mujeres dropped significantly from 26.3 /thousand in 1997 to 2.4 /thousand in 2000. The extent of development that has been achieved in Quintana Roo in this respect is clearly visible if the figures are compared with the national rates. In 2000, the mortality rate was at 4.4 and the rate of child mortality at a national level was 24.6; this comparison clearly demonstrates the huge disparity between the two.

Table 0.2 Child Mortality Rate.

Municipality

Rate 2000

Quintana Roo

9.6

Cozumel

5

Felipe C. Puerto

2.9

Isla Mujeres

2.4

Othón P. Blanco

6.8

Benito Juárez

15

José Ma. Morelos

5.4

Lázaro Cárdenas

5.3

Deaths of minors of 1 year by each thousand inhabitants

4.2

Source: Servicios Estatales de Salud. Quintana Roo. Entrevista personal. Enero 2000

Migration

The third component in demographic dynamics is migration, a phenomenon which has generated the main characteristics of the people of Quintana Roo. In 2000, the percentage of the population which wasn’t born in the State and which lived in populations of less that 2,500 inhabitants was 65% according to the National Survey of Demographic Dynamics. Of this percentage, the majority came from the States of Yucatan, Veracruz, Campeche and Mexico City.

This migratory flow had made Quintana Roo the state with the greatest positive migratory flow.

This migratory phenomenon has been so great that it has stopped a true assessment of the total growth of the population. One example of this is that while the World Bank estimated that the town of Benito Juarez grew from 1996 to 1999 at about 12% semi-annually, in other official sources such as the State Council of the Population of Quintana Roo, it reached only a rate of 8.7%. (as shown in table 2.1).

Because migration is the most difficult demographic problem to measure, as it can only be measured with the General Population census every 10 years, this increases the difficulty in calculating precisely the total population of the state and its distribution in the 8 municipalities.
However, the evidence of population expansion in demands for housing, schools, health institutions and work opportunities all show the extraordinary growth of the population of Quintana Roo. The increase in the population because of migration has led the population dynamics of this state to have special characteristics which are manifest in a big growth in zones of attraction (an influence on the demographic items of births and deaths),as well as an impact on other population characteristics such as: weddings, reproductive health, the level of education, the work situation, as well as other important indicators like the  main occupations and the unemployment rate. The population pyramid, which represents an x-ray of the demographic dynamics of a population, in the case of Quintana Roo shows a predominantly young population with the influence of immigration dynamics, as much in volume as in the dynamics. (see graph 2.1).


The characteristics of this migrant population can be deduced by observing the pyramid of the state’s population. In the 20-24 age group there is visible widening reflecting the incorporation of population in these ages, and in the same way, it reflects the effect of migration on the 0-4 year old group, which can be the result of the births in the state of the migrant couples or else of children born in other states and have accompanied their parents in the migration. The most probable is the latter, because the number of births in the state has not varied significantly: 21,412 births in 1998 and 21,279 in 2000, according to the residence of mothers in Quintana Roo.

Characteristics of the Population

According to the COESPO, in Quintana Roo in 2000, 51.4% of the population were men and 48.6% were women. The composition by ages was 37.20% of minors under the age of 14, 60.43% were between 15 and 65 years, and only 2.13% were older than 65. The indicator of masculinity, or in other words the ratio of men to every one hundred women was 103.0.

Table 0.1 Distribution of the population by municipality, showing groupings by age and the average age. 1995.

Municipality

0-14

15-64

65 and more

Not
specified

Average age

Quintana Roo

37.20

60.43

2.13

0.24

20

Benito Juárez

35.17

63.25

1.23

0.35

22

Cozumel

33.81

63.57

2.29

0.33

22

Felipe Carrillo Puerto

42.80

53.94

3.14

0.12

17

Isla Mujeres

34.13

63.46

2.30

0.11

22

José Ma. Morelos

45.46

50.63

3.86

0.05

16

Lázaro Cárdenas

40.92

54.66

3.73

0.69

18

Othón P. Blanco

38.15

58.85

2.90

0.10

20

Solidaridad

37.50

61.02

1.32

0.16

20


Source: INEGI. Perfil Socieconómico de Quintana Roo, 1997

The economically active population was 66.8%, or 467,795 workers, of which 66.5% were men and the rest were women. Quintana Roo has one of the highest indicators of population in the country, since in 2000 97% of the economically active population were employed; for example, in the municipality of Benito Juarez, 99% of the economically active population were employed. The occupied population are mostly found in the tertiary section, a 67.2% according to the Population Census of 1995; 16.4% in the secondary sector; and only 15.7% in the primary sector.
Given these characteristics, 58.6% work as employees, around 4% as day laborers, and the same number as workers in a family without pay; it is noticeable that 27.1% are self employed. 41% of the economically active population receive less than two minimal salaries and 9% receive no salary at all.

From the total of those who were registered in the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social in December 2000, 39% worked for companies, individuals or at home, as well as 28% in the construction business. It is worth noting that the number of permanently registered individuals is cyclical during the year especially in the months from January to April which are reported in February, June and October and which are probably connected to the high season in tourism.

Población indígena

El territorio de Quintana Roo ha sido asiento de importantes grupos indígenas, sobre todo aquéllos de lengua maya; en la actualidad, los remanentes de estos grupos se encuentran dispersos en pequeñas comunidades principalmente en los municipios de Felipe Carrillo Puerto (FCP), José María Morelos (JMM) y Lázaro Cárdenas (LC).

Las estimaciones acerca de su número, difieren de acuerdo a si se consideran solamente los monolingües (que únicamente hablan maya) o bien se incluyen los que también pueden comunicarse en español. Para el COESPO, en Quintana Roo, el 23% de la población en 2000 se consideraba indígena (235,555 habitantes), mientras que para el Instituto Nacional Indigenísta (INI) en 1998, solamente la población localizada en los municipios mencionados. En cuanto a Solidaridad, en algunas localidades, se ubica a cientos de indígenas, contabilizándose el 13.2% del total del Estado, o sea, 126,924 habitantes.

Durante el ciclo escolar 2000-01 el 21.3% del total de alumnos en el Estado inscritos en los niveles preescolar, primaria, secundaria y preparatoria, pertenecían a grupos indígenas, ascendiendo a un total de 50,485 alumnos. Del total de aulas en el Estado, el 27% se localiza en la Zona Maya. Si bien existe un buen número de aulas y docentes, además de programas de educación para adultos y teleaulas, uno de los problemas en materia de educación en la zona es el rezago en el aprendizaje debido a la deficiente castellanización, sobre todo en los primeros ciclos escolares (existe un problema de equivalencia de conceptos entre el español y el maya por lo cual se requiere de maestros que puedan enseñar adecuadamente en ambas lenguas). Otro problema, es el ausentismo de los profesores, los cuales generalmente pertenecen a comunidades alejadas de donde ejercen su labor, lo cual impide la atención permanente de sus alumnos (se reporta que algunos maestros acuden a trabajar el martes para retirarse el jueves de cada semana). Un tercer problema es la deserción del alumnado, cuya causa principal es la falta de recursos económicos para continuar en la escuela, ya que a temprana edad son retirados de la escuela por sus padres con el fin de ayudar en actividades para sostenimiento del hogar.

En 2000, existían en la Zona Maya, 80 unidades médicas que prestaron sus servicios al 18.2% del total de usuarios en el Estado. Sin embargo, existe un problema en este aspecto: la falta de hospitales de segundo nivel, sobre todo en las cabeceras municipales de JMM y LC. Esto obliga a la población indígena, que así lo requiere, a trasladarse a Chetumal o Mérida para su atención. La principal causa de las enfermedades que se presentan en esta zona, es la falta de prevención y mal manejo de las enfermedades. Las más comúnes, sobre todo en los niños, son las diarréicas y respiratorias. Del total de infantes en el Estado, el 26.0% se localiza en esta zona y de ésos, el 50% se encuentran bajo vigilancia nutricional, a fin de prevenir y combatir dichas enfermedades.También el 99.5% de ellos recibe vacunaciones.

Municipio de Benito Juárez

En el año 2000 este municipio tenía 581,636 habitante que equivale 45% de la población total del Estado para ese año. El número total de localidades es de 274 de las cuales, la principal es Cancún. De acuerdo a los datos del Consejo Estatal de Población de Quintana Roo, el municipio de Benito Juárez tiene una tasa de crecimiento media anual de 8.7% para el período de 1996-2000. La tasa de natalidad en 1995, fue de  26.7%, la cual se sitúa por debajo del promedio nacional. De igual manera, la tasa general de mortalidad es tan sólo de 2.5%, cifra significativamente baja; sin embargo, la tasa de mortalidad infantil llegó en 1999 a 15.03%, lo que indica el grado de requerimientos de salud que tiene el municipio (ver Tabla 7.5).

Tabla 0.1 Indicadores demográficos: Benito Juárez.

Fenómenos demográficos

Indicador

Año de referencia

Tasa de crecimiento media anual (%)/1

8.7

96-00

Tasa de natalidad/2

26.7

95

Tasa de mortalidad/2

2.5

95

Tasa de mortalidad Infantil/3

15.03

99


Fuentes: /1 Elaborado por el CEE con datos de COESPO Quintana Roo. Proyecciones Demográficas 2000 INEGI.
Cuaderno Estadístico Municipal Benito Juárez, Quintana Roo, 1998  /3 Servicios Estatales de Salud de Quintana Roo. Entrevista personal. Enero 2000

La fuerte inmigración que ha sufrido este municipio, dada la atracción que ejerce Cancún, se ve reflejada en la estructura poblacional de 2000 (Gráfica 7.5) con el achatamiento de los grupos de edad de 5 a 19 años y ensanchamiento de 20 años en adelante. Lo que esta estructura denota es que han sido jóvenes entre 20 y 30 años los que principalmente han inmigrado a este municipio.

Fuente: Elaborado por el CEE con datos de COESPO Quintana Roo. Proyecciones Demográficas 2000

La Educación en el Municipio de Benito Juárez

El municipio de Benito Juárez cuenta con una amplia infraestructura educativa en todos los niveles, la myor parte de los centros educativos se encuentran en Cancún. Los datos estadísticos son los siguientes, incluyen escuelas públicas y privadas:

ESTADÍSTICAS BÁSICAS DE EDUCACIÓN MUNICIPIO
DE BENITO JUÁREZ
2005

TIPO DE EDUCACIÓN
MATRÍCULA
PLANTELES
ESPECIAL
1,607
6
PREESCOLAR
15,707
135
PRIMARIA
71,569
218
SECUNDARIA
26,565
72
TECNICA
3,000
4
MEDIA SUPERIOR
12,101
36
NORMAL
158 
3
SUPERIOR
7,850 
13
TOTAL
138,207 
487

En cuanto a la cobertura educativa por grupos de edad, Benito Juárez tiene el siguiente perfil:

COBERTURA EDUCATIVA EN PORCENTAJES

PERIODO ESCOLAR
BENITO JUÁREZ
NACIONAL
Preescolar 3-5 años
39.2
58.6
Primaria 6-12 años
95.2 
93
Secundaria 13-15 años
87.9
87
Media 16-18 años
56
53
Superior 19-23 años
13
22

Es importante señalar que el personal docente en el rubro de educación especial suma 297 en el estado y 112 en Benito Juárez.  Los datos provenien del anuario 2004 de la Secrtetaría Estatal de Educación y Cultura del estado de Quintana Roo.

La Salud en el Municipio de Benito Juárez

Todo el municipio cuenta con servicios médicos de primer nivel (medicina familiar) y sólo Cáncun cuenta con segundo nivel de atención (hospitalización). Los servicios de salud son proporcionados básicamente por la Secretaría de Salud Estatal, el IMSS, el ISSSTE, DIF, Ejercito y Armada y la Cruz Roja.

La infraestructura en Salud es:

Centros de Salud 16
Hospitales Públicos 6
Hospitales Privados 20
Total de camas 400

Las cinco principales enfermedades que afectan a la población son:

Infecciones respiratorias.
Infecciones intestinales.
Infecciones de las vías urinarias.
Traumatismos.
Gastritis.

Las cinco principales causas de muerte son:

Afecciones perinatales.
Accidentes de tránsito.
Enfermedades del corazón.
Tumores malignos
Diabetes Mellitus.

La Vivienda en Benito Juárez

De acuerdo al sistema estatal de información geográfica y estadística, en Benito Juárez existen 142,300 viviendas con las siguientes características:

CONCEPTO  
%
Techo de losa de concreto o tabique
76
Techo de lámina   de cartón 
22
Techo de lámina metálica
2
Piso de cemento 
53
Piso de madera o mosaico 
43
Piso de tierra
4
Con agua potable 
95
Con energía eléctrica 
98
Con drenaje
40
Con fosa séptica
60

        
6.4. - La Discapacidad en Quintana Roo (Cifras Censo 2000)

POBLACIÓN TOTAL CON DISCAPACIDAD
QUINTANA ROO

 
ESTADO
BENITO JUÁREZ
%
TOTAL
16,504 
6,012
36.4
MOTRIZ
5,760
2,098
AUDITIVA 
2,393
872
VISUAL
4,423
1,611
MENTAL
2,657
968
LENGUAJE
1,073
391
OTRAS
198
72

POBLACIÓN MENOR DE 20 AÑOS CON DISCAPACIDAD
QUINTANA ROO

 
ESTADO
BENITO JUÁREZ
TOTAL 6,981 2,543
MOTRIZ 2,437   888
AUDITIVA  1,012 369
VISUAL 1,871  682
MENTAL 1,124 409
LENGUAJE 454 165
OTRAS 84 31

 

 
   
 
 

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